Q.1) What is motivation?
Answer: Dictionary meaning of motivation is the desire to do something, which is quite simplistic, however in reality motivation is a complex concept; it is about getting extra levels of commitment and performance from individuals, over and above mere compliance with certain rules and procedures. How highly motivated a person is will directly have an impact on his performance, in terms of the outcome he/she will be producing.
Q.2) What are the basic factors that motivate an individual?
Answer: There are several factors that helps motivate an individual. These factors are also known as motivators. Firstly it is the responsibility and work itself, the type of work being carried out by an individual will have an effect on its level of motivation for example if the work is not organized properly it can be de-motivating for an employee, plus if no responsibility is being delegated to an individual than this might degrade him causing de-motivation even further. Secondly it is the achievement of a task, desire, an ambition or a target because this is what helps build a confidence of an individual due to which he is able to carry out the task more effectively and properly. Thirdly motivation results from recognition as well, when an individual is rewarded for his efforts this helps in enhancement of his confidence to a further level which will increase the satisfaction of an employee plus it will also prevent high labour turnover which is one of the rising problem in most organizations. Last but not the least it’s the salary and status that greatly impact on an individual level of motivation, although being financial in nature both these factors contribute noticeably in increasing or decreasing the levels of output and satisfaction.
Q.3) What is the difference between a flat and tall organizational structure?
Answer: Organizational structures are of two types; flat organizational structure, where there is a wide span of control and it has lesser levels of hierarchy, this type of structure is mainly present in service organizations because the nature of work being carried out is repetitive in nature i.e. in Audit firms. Whereas a tall organizational structure is totally opposite of a flat one, it has greater number of hierarchy levels and a narrow span of control where a manager is responsible for lesser number of subordinates and the work being carried out is not repetitive.
Q.4) What motivators are identified by Herzberg?
Answer: There were five motivators identified by Herzberg, which are as follow:-
Q.5) Describe the two types of motivation theories.
Answer: There are two main types of motivation theories namely; Process theories that ask the question “HOW are people motivated?” and Content theories that ask the question “What are the things that motivate people?” Content theories are also known as need theories.
6) What are the four factors necessary for self motivation?
Answer: Four factors necessary for self motivation are as follows:
- Self confidence
- Focus on your goal
- Positive thinking
- A motivating environment
Q.7) Which writers had their theories mainly based on motivating individuals?
Answer: There are many writers on motivation, whose theories have been a great help in managing high motivation levels of employees, by implication of different factors. The five most well-known writers on motivation are:
- Frederick Taylor
- Elton Mayo
- Abraham Maslow
- Frederick Herzberg
Q.8) What are the three ways defined by Herzberg that can improve staff satisfaction and motivation?
Answer: Herzberg defined three ways that can help in satisfaction and motivation of staff, and are as follows:
- JOB ENLARGEMENT: this concept involves in widening the scope of job being carried out. It is also known as Horizontal job enlargement. According to Herzberg this concept helps in little motivation of the staff.
- JOD ENRICHMENT: also known as Vertical job enlargement. This is a way to motivate staff by increasing the workload on employees through delegation of task, giving of responsibility to lower managerial staff for completion of particular jobs, but the overall responsibility remains with the manager.
- JOB ROTATION: this a planned rotation of staff between different jobs to alleviate monotony and provide a fresh job challenges.
Q.9) What are the benefits of a motivated individual?
Answer: There are several benefits of a motivated individual but the most important ones include, greater job satisfaction, improved health due to which an individual will be able to properly concentrate on his job, improved career prospects as the person is highly motivated therefore he can develop his career with greater enthusiasm and concentration, and a person who is highly self motivated will find the job more interesting leading to a sustainable n greater volume of output.
Q.10) What is the main difference between Self-motivation and Self-satisfaction?
Answer: Self motivation is how hard an individual is willing to work whereas self-satisfaction is how content you are with your job. Self-motivation is a much broader concept when linked with satisfaction, Self-motivation of an employee depends on many factors both intrinsic and extrinsic.
Q.11) Does different leadership styles have an impact on an individual’s Self-motivation?
Answer: There are four different styles of leadership. The type of leadership style adopted by a leader does have an impact on his employee’s motivation.
A person working under the supervision of an autocratic leader might not be as motivated as a person working under a manager adopting democratic style of leadership. Autocratic and democratic style of leadership are like two opposite ends of a line, an autocratic leadership style involves commanding employees the task to be performed with no or very little authority to change the way in which task can be performed, all decisions are taken by the manager himself no opinion of the staff is taken, this can prove to be very de-motivating specially for those employees who are motivated by non-financial factors.
Whereas democratic style involves delegation of authority to staff members, employees are involved in decision making; the overall decision taken by the manager depends on the consensus of opinion. Democratic style of leadership helps in boosting the motivation level of individuals as they feel involved in decision making process of the organization, they find themselves contributing in the decisions that lead to success of the organization they work for, and this achievement helps in hovering of an employee’s self-confidence motivating him to do well in future as well.
Paternalistic is one of the other forms of leadership style, this is where a manager acts like a father, he takes decision most appropriate and in favor of his staff, employees are involved in the decision making process but the overall decision taken is solely by the manager himself, this type of style is less motivating as compared to democratic style of leadership.
Lastly Laissez faire style of leadership is where managers delegate virtually all power and authority to their staff; very broad criteria are established for the staff to work in. This style can be de-motivating as managers will not be monitoring their staff’s performance closely due to which there might be no or little sense of achievement and appreciation plus lack of feed-back will all contribute to staff being de-motivated.
Q.12) Explain why studying human needs is believed to be an important part of motivation theory.
Answer: Concentration on human needs was made by Maslow in his theory. He identified five human needs and arranged them in priority starting at the base with the physical needs (i.e. food, shelter, water and rest), safety needs (these include protection from threats, job security, health and safety at work), social needs (trust, acceptance, friendship, belonging to a group etc), esteem needs (respect from others, status, recognition of achievement, etc) and self actualization (reaching one’s full potential).
It was important to study human needs because a person’s needs determine his action. An individual always try to satisfy them and needs to be motivated to do so, therefore to increase an individual’s self motivation it was important to figure out the human needs.
Q.13) What are the non-financial methods of motivation?
Answer: Non-financial motivators, as the name suggests refers to those factors/ methods of motivating an individual or a group of individuals by things other than money or financial rewards. The range of non-financial motivators is very extensive but the most commonly used ones involve:
- Job rotation
- Job enlargement
- Job enrichment
- Team working
- Quality circles
- Target setting
- Delegation and
Q.14) Outline the three key feature of job enrichment.
Answer: Job enrichment is the concept that involves the principles of organizing the work so that the employees are encouraged to use their full abilities for its completion. The three key features of job enrichment are:
- Complete units of work so that contribution from each individual can be identified and more challenge work can be offered.
- Direct feedback on performance so that each employee can have awareness of his own progress.
- Challenging tasks should be offered to employees.
Q.15) Explain how delayering may lead to an increase in employee’s self motivation?
Answer: Delayering is when layers of workers are removed from a hierarchy of an organization. This is mainly done to reduce business costs, to shorten the chain of command and to improve the process of communication through the organization.
Delayering helps in increasing an employee’s self motivation due to its several benefits i.e. increased delegation of work; reduced remoteness of the staff from the top management and greater chances of having more responsible work to perform. Although non-financial in nature but all these benefits boost the motivational level of employees.